Explanation of Bulugh Al-Maram
Hadith number 1285: Being Entrusted By Others

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Hadith number 1285:

وعن ابي معقل بن يسار رضي الله عنه قال : سمعت رسول الله يقول:
<< ما من عبد يسترعه الله رعية يموت يوم يموت وهو غاش لرعيته الا حرم الله عليه الجنة>>

Narrated Ma'qil bin Yasar: I heard Allah's Messenger saying, "Any governor in charge of Muslim subjects who dies while acting dishonestly towards them will be excluded by Allah from Paradise." (Agreed upon)


وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: قال رسول الله: <<اللهم: من ولى من امر امتي شيئا فشق عليهم فاشقق عليه>>

Narrated Aisha: Allah's Messenger said, "Oh Allah, cause distress to him who has any charge over my people and causes them distress." (Muslim reported it).


These two hadith go hand in hand. Essentially, they both discuss the importance of those who are entrusted with something or others.

The first hadith is narrated by Ma'aqil bin Yasar (معقل بن يسار). He did not relate this hadith to others until he was on his deathbed. He also said had he not been on his deathbed, he would not have passed the hadith on. The reason being for this is that he might have taught other narrations of this particular hadith, and wanted to keep something for himself.

Does the first hadith apply only to those in positions of leadership (king, president, etc) or rather; is it applicable to all people who are in charge of others?

When studying Islam, it is imperative that one takes all ayat and hadith together before forming a judgment about a particular issue. Therefore, when answering this question, one has to gather all other relevant hadith. There is another hadith where the Prophet said:

كلكم راع وكلكم مسئول عن رعيته، الرجل راع في أهل بيته ومسئول عن رعيته، والمرأة راعية في بيتها ومسئولة عن رعيتها، ثم ذكر الولاة، ثم قال: ألا كلكم راع وكلكم مسئول عن رعيته

"All of you are responsible, and all of you are responsible for those who are entrusted under you."

So this hadith is directed to those who are in a position of leadership, as well as the common folk who have others under their responsibility.

Lessons of the hadith: (1st hadith)

Proof of Heaven:
This hadith is proof that heaven exists. When scholars explain this hadith, why do they make it a point to mention this?
The more proof someone has on a subject, the more assured they are. So all of these proof confirm the existence of paradise.
Another reason is the way that scholars pull out unique lessons from each hadith.


Everything is under the control of Allah:
This hadith shows that one has to follow the limits that have been placed on him by Allah. Even though one has a position of authority, he is still required to follow the rules that Allah has set.

Repent:
As long as one repents before he dies, he will be forgiven of the sin. In the hadith, the Prophet says, "…who dies while acting dishonestly…" The Prophet said: "Allah will accept the repentance of His slave so long as the death rattle has not yet reached his throat." (al-Tirmidhi) So the punishment is applicable to one who continues with the sin and does not repent from it.

(Side issue:
There are three steps for repentance:
A person promises to stop the sin, or start doing the required act
Ask Allah for forgiveness
Regret the sin, and promise never to repeat it)

Benefit of repentance: The Prophet said: "The one who repents from sin is like one who did not sin." (al-Tirmidhi)

Mistreating those that one is entrusted with:
A person who mistreats those that are under his authority has commited a major sin. The hadith states they "will be excluded by Allah from Paradise." This, in of itself, means that one who commits the sin is committing a major one.

There is a dispute among the various Muslim sects how Allah will deal with a person who is a sinner.

The Mutazilah and Khawaarij state:
All sins take one out of Islam completely, because all major sins make one a kafir.
These two groups take ahadith like the first one mentioned above, as proof to show that if a person commits a sin, then they must be a kafir (since kafirs are those that enter hell).


The Murjiites state:
All sins are equal. As long as one believes in their heart, then it is allowed for one to commit any sin, since Allah is the most Merciful and forgives everything. So according to this the shaytaan will enter jannah because he believes in Allah.
This group only takes the hadith that state how merciful and forgiving Allah is.

Ahl-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah state:
If a person commits a major sin, and he does not repent, then it is up to Allah to decide whether to forgive or not. If He does not forgive, then he will be in hell for a temporary time (based on the hadith, Whoever has faith in his heart, will enter heaven).
Again we take all the hadith and ayat collectively before forming a judgment about an Islamic matter.

Rasul's statement, he "will be excluded by Allah from Paradise":
Does this mean he will never be allowed entry to heaven? The hadith does imply that, but there are two types of entry to heaven:

Heaven

مقيد مطلق
Restricted entry to heaven General entry to heaven
Punished and eventually going to heaven Straight to heaven

This hadith means that a person who does this act will be banned from directly entering heaven (مطلق), but he can still enter after being punished, if Allah wills to do so.

When studying hadith, there are two ways to study it:
Fiqh aspect
Practical ways to apply the hadith

How to apply the hadith (practical):

The strongest bond between two people is the bond between a husband and his wife.
That is why in Surat Al-Baqarah when Allah talks about black magic, he says,

مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ
"…that which they cause separation between man and his wife…" (2:102)


There are certain rights that a woman has over her husband, as well as a husband over his wife.


A husband is entrusted by: (the rights of a woman):

Spending on her-

This includes food, shelter, and any necessary items she may need. The question may arise then, how much is the wife given or how much does the husband spend on his wife? This answer depends on the norm of the time. A person should look at those around him to see what other women are used to receiving and spend accordingly.

b) She must be taught Islam-

A woman has the right to learn on her own if her husband does not teach her the requirements of Islam. This includes the necessary knowledge, not the extras.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ عَلَيْهَا مَلَائِكَةٌ غِلَاظٌ شِدَادٌ لَا يَعْصُونَ اللَّهَ مَا أَمَرَهُمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ

66:6 O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded.


A man being jealous over his wife-

A man must be jealous over his wife. This is not something to be looked down upon. A person who is jealous protects his honor. The Prophet said:

لا يدخل الخنة الديوث

Abd-Allaah ibn 'Amr said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
'There are three who will not enter Paradise and Allaah will not even look at them on the Day of Resurrection: one who disobeys his parents, a woman who imitates men, and the duyooth (cuckold, weak man who feels no jealousy over his womenfolk)."

A man must make his wife happy in her house-

The Prophet said, "The best of the believers is the one who is the most sensitive to his wife." For example, the Prophet took time out for his wife Aisha by asking the Muslim army to go ahead while the Prophet and Aisha raced with each other.

A wife is entrusted by: (the husband's rights)

A wife has to obey her husband-

One time a sahabi Hussein ibn Mehsam brought his aunt to the Rasul and the Rasul asked her, "How are you with your husband? Know that your position in heaven is dependent on your husband"

So, the general rule is that a wife must obey her husband. The only exception to this is if he orders her to do something against what Allah has ordered (or to commit a haram).

لا طاعة لمخلوق في معصية الخالق
'There is no obedience to a creation, while disobeying the Creator."

If a woman wants to fast extra (sunnah or nafl), and her husband does not want her to, then she is not allowed to fast. She will still receive the reward as if she did.


Guard his wealth-

If the money belongs to the woman (from inheritance or her working), then he does not have a right over it. But a woman must guard and not spend extravagantly the money entrusted to her by her husband.


A wife can not allow others to visit her without his permission-

This applies to other females, males, and even males who are close relatives. The Prophet said, "She does not allow anyone to enter except with his permission."


Be grateful to the husband-

The Prophet said the majority of the inhabitants in hell are women. One of the reasons for this being they are ungrateful to their husbands. A husband can continually do good for his wife, but when he makes a mistake, she will accuse him of never seeing any good from him.

The rights of children:

They must have a religious mother-

It is the right of the children to have a religious mother, therefore, when a man is looking to get married, he should choose the god-fearing woman (vice versa for a women to look for a righteous husband.)

During the time of Umar ibn Al-Khattab, he was patrolling the streets at night. He overheard a conversation between a young lady and her mother. The mother was encouraging her daughter to add water to the yogurt, so to be able to sell more yogurt. The daughter attested to this and said that Umar would not allow this. The mother replied by saying, Umar was not around, so he would not know. The daughter said even though Umar was not there, that Allah was watching. The next day Umar had offered his sons to marry this god-fearing woman. Her grandson was the famous Umar ibn Abdul Aziz.


Choosing a good name for the child-

If a parent chooses a bad name for his child, he has betrayed his trust. The Rasul would change the names of people that had a negative connotation to it. For example, one woman was named عاصية , or disobedience. Instead he changed it to جميلة , beautiful (narrated by Muslim, 2139).


Teaching the children Islamic knowledge-

This includes:
Tawheed (the oneness of Allah). This is the most important and first thing that should be taught to the children.

In Surat al-Luqman, Luqman gives his son the following advice:

وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ

31:13 Behold, Luqman said to his son by way of instruction: "O my son! join not in worship (others) with Allah. for false worship is indeed the highest wrong-doing."

One time the Prophet was giving advice to Ibn Abbas, who was a child at the time.

(( - يا غلام - ألا أعلمك كلمات ينفعك الله بهن ينفعك الله بها نفع الدين والدنيا والآخرة احفظ الله يحفظك ، احفظ الله تجده تجاهك ، إذا سألت فسأل الله ، وإذا استعنت فأستعن بالله وأعلم أن الخلق لو اجتمعوا على أن ينفعوك بشيء لم ينفعوك إلا بشيء قد كتبه الله لك ، ولو اجتمعوا على أن يضروك بشيء لم يضروك إلا بشيء قد كتبه الله عليك ، رفعت الأقلام وجفت الصحف ))

In an authentic hadeeth, Ibn Abbaas- radiAllahu 'anhu - said,

"I was behind the Prophet sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam (riding behind him on the same mount) and he said to me:

'O young man! I will tell you some words [of advice]:
Be mindful of Allah and He will protect you.
Be mindful of Allah and you will find him in front of you.
When you ask, ask Allah, and when you seek aid, seek aid from Allah.
And know that if the whole nation were to gather together to benefit you with something, they would not be able to benefit you except with something that Allah had already written for you. And if they gathered to harm you with something, they would not be able to harm you except with something that Allah had already written to happen to you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried.'"


Teaching them what is halal and what is haram-
For example, children need to be taught how to pray. A parent who does not teach their child how to pray, will be questioned about that on the Day of Judgment.

Luqman said,

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ
31:17 "O my son! establish regular prayer


Teach children good Islamic manners-

It is important that both parents teach their children good Islamic manners. For example among those is respecting his elders. The Prophet said, "He is not one of us who does not respect his elders."
وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

31:17: Enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong: and bear with patient constancy whatever betide thee; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs.

Being fair and just with children-

The Prophet said, "Fear Allah and be just with your children" (i.e. treat them equally.) In some cultures, for example, the male is favored over the female. The Prophet has specifically said for all children to be treated fairly and in a good manner.

Learning Arabic-

A parent who can communicate in Arabic, and does not teach this to their child, has betrayed his trust. Arabic is the language of the Quran, so for one to fully understand it, he must understand Arabic.

Ibn Taymiya said:
"The Arabic language is the slogan of Islam and its people. It is not permissible for a Muslim to use a language other than that."

The Rasul said:
"Whoever can speak Arabic, then let him not speak in another language, because it causes hypocrisy."


Watching over children-

It is imperative that parents watch over their children, especially during times when the child is watching T.V, or on the internet.


General Responsibility: (Khalifa or leader)

The Khalifa has many rights that he has to fulfill. Among them include:
He cannot allow places of great sin to be in existence. (clubs, bars, riba, etc)
He must govern by Islam.

The people living under a khilafa must also give the khalifa his right.
They must obey him- For example, if the khalifa says, we will not pray the tahajjud tonight, the Muslims should obey him (if he has a good reason).

There are many types of trusts. The ones mentioned above are only a few. Other trusts include a Muslim toward another Muslim. These include:
Advising him when he is doing wrong
Not backbiting him
Not harming or betraying him in any way

HADITH NUMBER 1286:

Narrated Aisha: Allah's Messenger said, "Oh Allah, cause distress to him who has any charge over my people and causes them distress." (Muslim reported it).


The second hadith mentioned above is the Prophet making dua against someone who causes others hardships.
There are many examples of this. One is an employer who overworks his employees or does not give them their full right. An employer must pay their employees "before the sweat dries from their forehead." They also should feed him the same food he himself is eating.

The Rasul said in this hadith that Allah will cause someone hardship who causes hardship to others. Allah will do this to someone both in this life and in the hereafter.

Lessons from the hadith:

Retaliation for sins-

It is known in Islam, whatever sin a person commits in this life, Allah will punish him according to the sin. So the person mentioned in this hadith is the one who causes hardships onto others. Because of this act, Allah will give him hardships on the Day of Judgment.


Does this apply to fard matters?
This hadith does not apply to commands of Allah. For example, a Muslim is obligated to pray Salatul Fajr on time. If a person wakes up another, and he claims it is a hardship for him, this hadith does not apply to him. So when following the commands of Allah, this hadith is not applicable.

وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُم بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

24.2: Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day:


The more lenient and soft hearted one is to others, the more Allah is lenient with him. Whereas, the harsher one is to others, the harsher Allah is with him.


The Prophet is being merciful to us-

In this hadith, the Prophet has shown great mercy by making dua against one who causes hardships upon others.

The Prophet was sent as a mercy to all of mankind. On the Day of Judgment, when all the people will be running towards the Messengers, begging for their help, they will answer, نفسي, نفسي "Myself, myself". Whereas, when people will run towards the Rasul, he will say, امتي, امتي"My nation, my nation" making sure everyone receives his intercession.
The Prophet was merciful to the non-Muslims as well. On the Day of Mecca's conquest, he forgave the Quraish for their opposition in the past.


Anas ibn Malik once told the Rasul he wanted to see him on the Day of Judgment. So the Rasul answered by saying he would find him by the scale. Anas asked what if he wasn't there. The Rasul said, he could be found by the Sirat. Anas then asked a third time if he was not there. Rasul answered by the pond (river of Kauthar). This is because the Prophet will be occupied by making intercession for his Ummah.


A person can take his right if his right is taken from him-

In this hadith, the Prophet is retaliating by making dua against the one who causes hardships.


Making dua against someone who has oppressed another is halal-

This hadith is proof that making dua on those who are oppressors, and also those who make things hard on others, is halal.


 
 

 

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