Explanation of Bulugh
Introduction about manners:
-Rasul (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) was sent to teach us manners and to continue on good manners. He used to say "The best amongst you are those who have the best manners and character." (Al-Bukhari)
-Even the 5 pillars of Islam have two aspects; one aspect is related to 'ibaddah (worship) and the other is something that relates to manners. For instance, Salaah is not only a way of worshipping Allah, but also teaches us certain manners. Allah says in the Quran that salah forbids and prohibits one from committing al-fahsha wal munkar (evil).
- Since manner and
morals are an important aspect of Islam, it is essential to study them.
ÇÈí åÑíÑÉ ÑÖí
Úäå: ÞÇá ÑÓæá
Types of hypocrites:
-There are two kinds of a hypocrite:
A person who has one of the four characteristic of a hypocrite is not an absolute hypocrite, but has traits of hypocrite; thus, he is a hypocrite in actions [Úãáí].
A person who commits the 4 acts mentioned in the hadith above, continually and habitually, is considered out-and-out hypocrite. Ibn Umar said that the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) said, "The 4 aspects of a hypocrite, whoever has all these qualities in them, is purely a munafiq (hypocrite). And whoever has one, has an aspect of nifaq (hypocrisy) until he leaves it."
"when he speaks, he lies "
"Oh you who believe! Be afraid of Allah, and be with those who are true (in words and deeds)." S. 9:119
"Allah guides not him who is a liar and ungrateful." S. 39:3
the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) said:
The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) said a trait a Muslim will never have is lying. Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) was asked if a Muslim could ever commit adultery, he said yes; however, when he was asked if a Muslim could lie, he said no.
(As part of a longer hadith) It was narrated by Sumurah bin Jundub, the Prophet said, "I saw (in a dream), two men came to me." Then the Prophet narrated the story (saying): "They said: The person, the one whose cheek you saw being torn away (from the mouth to the ear) was a liar and used to tell lies and the people would report those lies on his authority till they spread all over the world. So he will be punished like that until the Day of Resurrection."
Lying upon Allah
"On the Day of Judgment you will see those who told lies against Allah; their faces will be turned black " S. 39:60
Attributing to Allah
a son or partner:
Claiming one is a
messenger of Allah:
Lying upon the Prophet
(salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam)
Lying on the Muslim
Lies people overlook:
1) Someone who lies desiring attention. For example, if a father tells his son if he comes to him he will give $5. If the child comes to the father and the father does not give him the money he promised him, then that is haram, and is considered a lie. A mother was calling her child by enticing him that she will give him something, the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) was sitting there and he warned her that if she wouldn't give it to him, then she would be a liar.
2) Spreading anything one hears. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) said it is sufficient for a man to be considered a liar if he talks about everything he hears.
3) When one tells a joke that is a lie. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) said, "Woe to the person who tells lies as jokes to make people laugh. Woe to him, Woe to him!"
He (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) also said, "I guarantee a palace in the middle of heaven to the one who doesn't lies in telling jokes."
When the Prophet (salAllahu 'alahe wassallam) used to joke, it was ALWAYS the truth.
Lies that people do not consider lies:
Exaggeration: For example when someone says, 'I called you a million times; when he actually called only once or twice. It is a lie according to most scholars.
When someone desires something but says one does not desire. One time Aisha had some women at her house. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) offered food to her and the women. They declined out of shyness even though they wanted to eat. The Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam) exclaimed, "Hungry and liars! Don't combine lying with being hungry."
When one says he did something and then says, "Allah as my witness," when he actually did not do what he claimed. This is a lie and is haraam because the person is attributing ignorance to Allah. Doesn't Allah know what he did? This is an issue with the person's belief about Allah's capability; therefore, the person who does this is considered a KAFIR.
When one attributes his lineage to someone other than his biological father; meaning, one changes his last name to someone else's. This is common when women get married and change their last name to their husband's. This is not only a lie but also an imitation of Western culture.
What the sahaaba and tabae' used to think about lies:
ÇÈä ÎËíã (Ar-Rabi' ibn Khuthaim):
ÇÈä ÍÑÇÓ (Rabi' ibn Haraas):
Èä ÏíäÇÑ (Maalik ibn Dinaar):
ÚãÑ ('Umar) said, "Stay with the truth even if it will kill you." At another place, he said, "For truthfulness to put me in a lower position is more beloved to me than to say a lie and acquire a higher position."
(Katheb) means a regular lie
One who recognizes
the severe punishment of Allah will stop this bad deed. (Does one want
to be known as a liar in the sight of Allah?)
Examples of this:
-When someone says:
-ÇÈÑÇåíã ÇáäÎÚí (Ibraheem An-Nakhi') was a scholar and people used to come to his house frequently. He liked to study and preferred not to be bothered by people; so he told his wife not to tell people where he was. When people came to his door asking where he was, she would reply, "Go look for him in the masjid." (She did not lie and say he wasn't there, but rather just suggested a place to look for him.)
-When an old woman came to the Prophet (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam), he told her that old women will not enter paradise. He said this to mean that everyone will be young in heaven and not old, and not that she will not enter heaven.
-There was once another man who liked to study and didn't want to be bothered. He told his wife when people come and ask for me, point your finger to the peephole, and say, "Wallahi, he is not here." (meaning, he is not inside the peephole, so it is not a lie.)
-Ibrahim did ÊæÑíÉ (tawriya) on 3 different occasions. Since he did this, he will not be allowed to do intercession on the Day of Judgment. When people run to him on that day, pleading for him to intercede, he will reply because he did tawriya, he will not be able to intercede for people and will send them to Muhammad (salAllahu 'alayhe wassallam). It is suggested by scholars that tawriya was forbidden in Ibrahim's legislation, but not in the Prophet's.
Abu Hurairah narrated that Ibrahim did not tell a lie except on three occasions: twice for the sake of Allah (Exalted and Almighty) when he said: "I am sick," when his people were holding a festival in honor of their gods, Ibrahim excused himself by saying he was sick, (Ch 37:89 Quran) and when he said: "(I have not done this but) the big idol has done it." The third was while Ibrahim and Sarah were on a journey. They passed through the territory of a tyrant. It was known that this tyrant would take married woman. So when Ibrahim was asked who Sarah was, he replied his sister (meaning his sister in Islam, since all muslims are brothers and sisters, coming from the same parents).
The following are
examples of such statements used by the salaf and early imaams, and collected
by Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim in his book Ighaathat al-Lahfaan:
It was reported about
Hammaad (may Allaah have mercy on him), if someone came that he did not
want to sit with, he would say as if in pain: "My tooth, my tooth!"
Then the boring person whom he did not like would leave him alone.
Other examples of
equivocation or indirectness in speech include the following:
One should be cautious
that the use of such statements is restricted only to situations of great
Excessive use of
it may lead to lying.
The person who uses
such a technique frequently may become proud of his ability to take advantage
Ibn Abbas said it
is permissible under cases of necessity.
Permissibility of Lying:
Lying to one's wife.
During times of war. For example, if there is an army far away and the group wants to meet the enemy. They tell the people around them they are going somewhere else, when in actuality they are heading towards the enemy.
Reconciliation (ÇÕáÇÍ)-when one wants to unify or reconcile two Muslims. One can go to one party and say, "so and so says these good things about you, or really respects you, etc."
The hadith supporting this: "He is not a liar he who unites two."
-For one to be a good Muslim or caller to Islam, they must be a truthful person.
Truthfulness in the
tongue. The Prophet used to always make dua:
Truthfulness in actions.
ÕÏÞ Çááå, ÝÕÏÞå Çááå
He was truthful (and sincerely asked for it) so Allah granted it to him.
Another example was
of Abdullah bin Jahsh. There is an unforgettable story involving Abdullah
ibn Jahsh and his friend Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas concerning an incident that
took place during the Battle of Uhud. Let us leave Sa'd to tell the story:
"During the battle, Abdullah came to me and said, "Aren't you
making a dua to God?"
said I. So we moved aside and I prayed, "O Lord, when I meet the
enemy, let me meet a man of enormous strength and fury. Then grant me
victory over him that I might kill him and acquire spoils from him."
To this my prayer, Abdullah said Ameen and then he prayed: "Let me
meet a man of great standing and enormous fury. I shall fight him for
Your sake, O Lord, and he shall fight me. He shall take me and cut off
my nose and ears and when I meet You on the morrow You will say, 'For
what were your nose and ear cut off?' And I would reply, 'For Your sake
and for the sake of Your Prophet.' And then You would say, 'You have spoken
the truth . . .' Sa'd continues the story: The prayer of Abdullah ibn
Jahsh was better than mine. I saw him at the end of the day. He was killed
and mutilated and in fact his nose and his ear were hung on a tree with
God responded to the prayer of Abdullah ibn Jahsh and blessed him with martyrdom as He blessed his uncle, the Leader of Martyrs, Hamzah ibn Abdulmuttalib. The noble Prophet buried them together in a single grave. His pure tears watered the earth and the earth was anointed with the fragrance of martyrdom.
"when he makes a promise, he breaks it"
There is ÇÌãÇÚ (consensus) among the scholars that lying is haram. The proof of this is the hadith that is mentioned above. The Prophet (sal allahu alayhe wasalam) starts the hadith off by mentioning lying, which is agreed by all reputable scholars that it is haram, and then follows by talking about making promises and trusts. A hadith never combines something that is clearly haram with something that is mubah (permissible). So this, in out of itself, makes breaking a trust haram.
There are certain promises that, which if made, do not cause harm; while others that do cause harm. For example, if one was to promise to meet someone for a jog, and doesn't show up, or someone who promises to pay someone back, and doesn't, the end result is still the same. The ruling is it is haram.
i) When a person says the shahada (there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad (salla allahu alayhe wasalam) is the Messenger of Allah), then he is committing himself to it, which means the person is obligated to follow everything encompassed in Islam. This is the worse kind of commitment to break.
We, as committed Muslims, also have to befriend those that have made this commitment to their Lord, and denounce those that haven't.
When one makes this commitment with Allah, he has a covenant with Allah. He promises to follow all his commands including praying, not worshipping any other deity, lowering the gaze, paying zakah, etc.
æóÅöÐú ÃóÎóÐúäóÇ ãöíËóÇÞó Èóäöí ÅöÓúÑóÇÆöíáó áÇó ÊóÚúÈõÏõæäó ÅöáÇøó Çááøåó æóÈöÇáúæóÇáöÏóíúäö ÅöÍúÓóÇäÇð æóÐöí ÇáúÞõÑúÈóì æóÇáúíóÊóÇãóì æóÇáúãóÓóÇßöíäö æóÞõæáõæÇú áöáäøóÇÓö ÍõÓúäÇð æóÃóÞöíãõæÇú ÇáÕøóáÇóÉó æóÂÊõæÇú ÇáÒøóßóÇÉó Ëõãøó ÊóæóáøóíúÊõãú ÅöáÇøó ÞóáöíáÇð ãøöäßõãú æóÃóäÊõã ãøöÚúÑöÖõæäó
"And remember We took a covenant from the children of Israel (to this effect): worship none but Allah; treat with kindness your parents and kindred and orphans and those in need; speak fair to the people; be steadfast in prayer; and practice regular charity. Then did ye turn back except a few among you and ye backslide (even now)." (2:83)
Quraysh, the Kufar of Mecca, understood this commitment better than us. They told Prophet that they would negotiate with him, but when the Prophet (salla allahu alayhe wasalam) asked for the shahadah, they stepped back.
There are many examples where the Prophet (salla allahu alayhe wasalam) gave commitments to people, and vice versa, that were kept and honored.
For example, when the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina, there was a reward for anyone who brought the Rasul back to the Kuffar. Among those that set out to find him, was Suraqa bin Malik. When he found the Rasul, his horse stumbled. This happened three times to Suraqa. The Prophet promised Suraqa that if he left, he will be given the crowns of Kisra. Suraqa agreed. During Umar's Khilafah, Persia was conquered and the crown of Kisra was brought to Umar. Umar fulfilled the Prophet's promise to Suraqa by calling him and awarding him the crowns of Kisra.
Another example was of Jabir bin Abdullah, who was promised money by Rasul when Bahrain would be conquered. Although Bahrain was conquered during Abu Bakr's khilafa, Jabir was given the promised money because of the guarantee made by the Rasul.
To the general people:
It is known in Islam, when the Muslims conquer a country, they give the people three choices; one of them being to pay Jizya (tax on non-Muslims). This tax is paid and puts the Muslims in charge of protecting the people of the area. When the Muslims conquered Syria, the people there paid them jizya, part of which included a promise of protection from the Muslims. Afterwards, when the Muslims in Syria were called away to fight another group of people, they gave the jizya money back to the Syrians, since they would not be able to protect them. Most of the Syrians then became Muslim because of the Muslims were honest and honored their commitment to the people.
Another example was of Ibn Mubarek, who was fighting a Zoroastrian (fire-worshipper). At the time of sunset, the fire-worshipper wanted to pray. Ibn Mubarek was shocked to see someone praying and worshipping something other than Allah. So he wanted to take advantage of the moment, and kill the fire-worshipper. Then he remembered the aya in the Quran:
æóÃóæúÝõæÇú ÈöÚóåúÏö Çááøåö ÅöÐóÇ ÚóÇåóÏÊøõãú æóáÇó ÊóäÞõÖõæÇú ÇáÃóíúãóÇäó ÈóÚúÏó ÊóæúßöíÏöåóÇ æóÞóÏú ÌóÚóáúÊõãõ Çááøåó Úóáóíúßõãú ßóÝöíáÇð Åöäøó Çááøåó íóÚúáóãõ ãóÇ ÊóÝúÚóáõæäó
Fulfill the covenant
of Allah when ye have entered into it and break not your oaths after ye
have confirmed them; indeed ye have made Allah your surety; for Allah
knows all that ye do.(16:91)
*As a Muslim, one must follow and fulfill all the promises that he makes to others.
To those who did something good to you:
[This includes fulfilling commitment to both Muslims AND non-Muslims]
When the Rasul and his family members were exiled in a valley, Shua'b Abi Talib, outside of Mecca for three years, there was a man by the name of Abu Bukhtari (ÇÈæ ÇáÈÎÊÑí) who wanted to help the Muslims. Even though he was a kafir, he tried to assist and ease their sufferings. When the Battle of Badr took place, the Rasul told all the sahaba not to kill Abu Bukhtari because of his help previously, to the Muslims, even though he was not a Muslim.
Another example is of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal who memorized the Quran at the young age of 7 or 8 years old. He was taught by many teachers and scholars. For 30 years, he continually made dua for all his teachers. This was because of his loyalty to them and of his appreciation to them because of what they taught him. Similarly, Imam Abu Hanifa would not put his feet up towards his teacher's house, which was about 7 blocks away.
There is a hadith where the Prophet (salla allahu alayhe wasalam) said "Whoever marries a woman and doesn't fulfill his commitment in dowry, he meets Allah as an adulterer."
The lessons that one learns from this hadith is the importance of fulfilling a commitment one gives to another.
There are many verses that talk about trust in Islam. They include:
In Surat Al-Anfaal: 27, Allah mentions there are three types of deception, including to Allah, Rasul, and that which one is entrusted in.
When one is entrusted
with something, such as: wealth, honor, secrets.
Examples of breaking
A person who has
this characteristic, is one when he argues, he:
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