Seerah of the Prophet: Consequences After the Battle of Al Ahzab
(student notes Wednesday, January 29, 2003)

Review:
Naeem Ibn Mas'oud conspired against the coalition, through spying, and played an important role in disuniting the Quraish. This eventually led to Abu Sufyan returning back defeated.

We learn that all throughout Islamic history when it comes to Muslims, coalitions disintegrate. Like the Ghatafan, today countries gather against the Muslims.

New:
After the battle of Al Ahzab, the companions proceeded onto the region of Banu Quraydhah, one of the groups of Jews that joined forces with the coalition against the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). [*The companions reported that they saw one of their companions named, Dhuhaiy al-Kalby, terrorizing the people of Banu Quraydhah. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) told them it was not Dhuhaiy, but was the angel Jibril doing that.]

Upon realizing that the Muslim forces were to come after them, the chiefs of Banu Quraydhah held a meeting discussing their options against the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). They discussed three options: 1.the righteousness of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was reason enough for them to accept Islam. But, despite this acknowledgement, they refused to give up the Torah over the Prophet's message. 2. To kill their women and children and to fight until death. They disregarded this option. 3. To bow down to Muhammad and accept his judgment, hoping to find a way out. They accepted this option.

A companion named Abu Lubabah was sent to Banu Quraydhah to announce their defeat. His emotions overcame him when he saw the masses crying. They asked him what the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would do to them if they were to surrender, and out of pity for them. He responded by placing his hand to his neck, and motioning that they would be slaughtered. It is said that not even before Abu Lubabah reached the other side of his neck while making this motion, he realized that he had betrayed the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) . He felt remorseful thereafter and tied himself to a log when he returned to Madinah until the messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would forgive him and consequently earning the forgiveness of Allah.

The messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) decided to send Sa'ad ibn Muadh to Banu Quraydhah. He sent Sa'ad because before Sa'ad accepted Islam he had very close relations with Banu Quraydhah. The people of Banu Quraydhah underestimated Sa'ad's Iman and expected Sa'ad to come to their aide and bargain for them with the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). However, little did they know that during the battle of Al Ahzab, which they concocted, Sa'ad became wounded and made supplications to Allah not to take his life until he sees with his own eyes the destruction of the Jews and the coalition.

Allah (azza wajal) did not take his life during the battle. Sa'ad was nursed by a female companion named Rafidhah. She was a female nurse, today considered a doctor. She had a moving clinic with her and treated patients with utmost care. Her story serves as a refutation to those who claim that it is forbidden for women to have an occupation. In fact she was so proficient at being a nurse-doctor, she was given permission by the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) to treat male companions out of necessity. She was given her own tent to treat ill people. She made a custom made bed on a camel for Sa'ad for he was to be transported from Madinah to Banu Quraydhah.

When Sa'ad reached Banu Quraydhah, as with tradition for the Jews and Christians, they stood up to greet him. This is a tradition that does not exist in Islam, for we do not stand up for people. Banu Quraydhah welcomed him and informed him that they would accept any decision he made upon them. Sa'ad told Banu Quraydhah that all their males were to be slaughtered and all the women and children were to be taken as slaves. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) tells Sa'ad later that his decision was in fact Allah's decision as well.

Not too long after, Sa'ad's wound explodes wide open and he bleeds on his way to Madina. The angel Jibreel came down in the evening and asked "What man is responsible for shaking Allah's throne due to his death?" The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came out to investigate and discovered that Sa'ad Ibn Muadh had died, radhi Allahu anhu.

By tens, the Jews were slaughtered in a trench nearby. As they awaited, one of them approached their leader Ka'ab and asked what they thought was going to happen. Ka'ab responded by saying "Death has come upon us." 700-900 male Jews were slaughtered in response to their betrayal of the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) during the battle of the coalition, no males survived. Some of the women and children who became slaves became Muslims later on, some becoming the best of the Muslims.

"And those of the people of the Scripture who backed them (the disbelievers) Allah brought them down from their forts and cast terror into their hearts, (so that) a group (of them) you killed, and a group (of them) you made captives."
(Al-Ahzab 33:26)

Thus, we see that anytime there is a coalition against the Muslims, defeat and humiliation will come charging against them. Not only were their males slaughtered, but generations that came after them prospered under the guidance of Islam, a complete annihilation of their efforts. Allah (azza wajal) says:

"Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people," (At-Tawbah 9:14)

"That Allah may reward the men of truth for their truth (i.e. for their patience at the accomplishment of that which they covenanted with Allah), and punish the hypocrites if He will or accept their repentance by turning to them in Mercy. Verily, Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful." (Al-Ahzab 33:24)

Allah (azza wajal) accepted Sa'ad's dua'a, Sa'ad who was a man who would have been the leader of Makkah had he not accepted Islam. Yet, he loved Islam more than this world.

Abu Rafi' Salam Ibnul Hakeem:
He was a Jew who helped gather the coalition against the Muslims. He was in Khyber when the sahabah discovered this. (As the Awz and the Khazraj tribes were always feuding, the Khazjraj wanted to match the Awz's previous feat by previously assassinating Ka'ab bin Malik. The Khazraj therefore offered to assassinate Abu Rafi' to match this.) [the tafseer about the Awz and the Khazraj can be found in << Have you not seen those who have been given a portion of the Scripture? They are being invited to the Book of Allah to settle their dispute, then a party of them turn away, and they are averse. (Al Imran 3:23)>>]

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent 5 people with a companion named Abdullah Ibn Ateeq to Khyber to assassinate Abu Rafi'. Khyber was a stronghold of the Jews. It had gates, high walls and it was located on a hilltop. As the Khyber guards went to relieve themselves, Abdullah and his men took siege of the gates and eventually entered Abu Rafi's house. Upon his wife letting them in, they rushed in to kill Abu Rafi'. The wife screamed and just as they were about to strike the wife, they remembered that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed them that only Abu rafi' was to be assassinated, no one else. The woman continued to scream, forcing them to leave the premise. They all left and ran away, except for Abdullah Ibn Ateeq. He wanted to make certain that his task was done by proof of eyesight. He returned inside the walls, and in the midst of all the people of Khyber he overheard Abu Rafi's wife declaring he was dead. Abdullah claimed to not have heard anything better than this news.

Abdullah then returned to Madina with his group with one of them breaking his hand and foot during the fight. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed Ruqya upon this companion which healed his injured limbs forever.

Khalid Ibn Sufyan al-Khodali:
He gathered his tribe to kill the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), he was one of the conspirators in the battle of Al Ahzab. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked for volunteers to assassinate Khalid. This was the Prophet's method in dealing with threats against Muslims, he did not wait for a United Nations to take action. When a threat to harm the Muslims came, he dealt with it from the onset.

Abdullah bin Unais volunteered for this noble deed. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) informed Abdullah that as soon as he sees Khalid he will know it is him because of his scary face. Knowing that Abdullah has never been afraid in his life, this was sure to be a distinguishing mark for the one who was to be assassinated. Abdullah saw him, set him aside and talked to him. Without respite he took his sword and chopped Khalid's head off. Women screamed and Abdullah ran off. Upon his return, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave Abdullah a stick (a cane) as a sign to present to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) on the day of Judgment. Abdullah never left the stick wherever he went from that day forward.

Amr bin al'As:
'Amr was a man full of reflections, and saw that everytime the Quraish fought against the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) they lost. Because he anticipated the Prophet's eventual victory, he decided to emigrate to Habasha. He assumed that when the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would open up Makkah for the Muslims, they (the Quraish) would be slaughtered. This was a reflection of what they would have done had they been victorious against the Muslims. Upon his arrival in Habasha, 'Amr Ibnu Umayyaah (a messenger of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ) was on his way out. 'Amr bin al 'As gathered his men and planned an ambush against 'Amr ibnu Ummayyah. But the king of Habasha, an-Najashi, became very angry at this plot to the point of breaking his own nose. He questioned 'Amr bin al'As and reminded him to fear Allah for plotting against the messenger of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) of Allah. An-Najashi exhorts 'Amr to accept Islam. 'Amr becomes Muslim.

UmmHabibah:
She was married off to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and she was also Abu Sufyan's daughter. She had notable wala' wal bara'. At one point after the opening of Makkah, Abu Sufyan came to visit this daughter indicating the desire to sit on a mattress inside her house. Umm Habibah would not allow him for it was the mattress of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and her father was a filthy kafir at the time.

She was first married to Ubaydullah bin Jahsh of Khuzaymah, who after reaching Habasha turned to Christianity. Consequently, UmmHabibah separated from him because she remained a Muslim. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) informed an-Najashi that he wanted to marry UmmHabibah as indicated in the ayah:

"Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [60:7]

Umm Habibah received this news from her slave, Barhah. As soon as the slave gave her this news, UmmHabibah removed all her jewelry and gave it to the slave for giving her the best news that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) of Allah wanted her in marriage.

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was in Madinah at the time of their marriage. His representative was an-Najashi while her representative was Khaled ibn Said al 'As, her relative. An-Najashi gave 400 dinars to Khaled for her mahr on behalf of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) . This was so because an-Najashi was a king and had the means to do so, while the other wives of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) were given an average of a half uqiyah (measure of gold) for their mahr. This proved that it is permissible in Islam for someone to pay for another man's mahr. As UmmHabibah was our mother in Islam, her brother is considered the uncle of the Muslims- Muawiyyah, the heroic leader of Islam.

"The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage)…." (Al-Ahzab 33:6)

Zainab bin Jahsh:
She was later on married to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and was also his cousin. At first, she was married to Zaid bin Harithah, the prophet's slave. Zaid was a slave because he had been given to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) by his first wife khadijah. He grew up in the Prophet 's household and was not treated as one would be treated in what was known as slavery in the American south. There was one narration where his father, Usamah, had discovered that his son Zaid was still alive. So he took his brother with him to bring his son Zaid back home. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) told his father to ask Zaid himself. But much to their surprise, Zaid refused to go home. Thus, the name Zaid ibn Muhammad was given to him before the prohibition of naming adoptions came about in this ayah: "Call them (adopted sons) by (the names of) their fathers, that is more just with Allah. But if you know not their father's (names, call them) your brothers in faith and Mawalîkum (your freed slaves). And there is no sin on you if you make a mistake therein, except in regard to what your hearts deliberately intend. And Allah is Ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful." (Al-Ahzab 33:5)

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wanted to rid the society of the class status that existed between people. This was the reason he married Zaid to Zaynab, his cousin. When he announced this, her sister, Hamanah was very much insulted and became angry. The marriage nonetheless took place but was destined to break as Zaid could no longer withstand the differences between himself and Zainab. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) knew, however that he would marry Zainab as it was revealed to him, but in the course of their marriage he tried to make amends between the two.

"And (remember) when you said to him (Zaid bin Harithah the freedslave of the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) on whom Allah has bestowed Grace (by guiding him to Islam) and you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) too) have done favour (by manumitting him) "Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allah." But you did hide in yourself (i.e. what Allah has already made known to you that He will give her to you in marriage) that which Allah will make manifest, you did fear the people (i.e., Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) married the divorced wife of his manumitted slave) whereas Allah had a better right that you should fear Him. So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they have divorced them). And Allah's Command must be fulfilled."(Al-Ahzab 33:37)

After his divorce, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) married Zainab.

"There is no blame on the Prophet ((sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)) in that which Allah has made legal for him.That has been Allah's Way with those who have passed away of (the Prophets of) old. And the Command of Allah is a decree determined." (Al-Ahzab 33:38)

After the battle of Al Ahzab, the hypocrites used this to slander the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), making mention that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) married his slave-son's wife.

There were some things very different about his marriage to Zainab as Zainab used to boast to the other wives. The first one was her grandfather and his grandfather are one. The second one was that Allah was the witness over their marriage as indicated in Surah al Ahzab. Normally witnesses are needed, but hers was a different case. The third one was that during their waleemah a verse in Surah Al Ahzab was revealed because people would enter their home endlessly.

"O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet's houses, except when leave is given to you for a meal, (and then) not (so early as) to wait for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meal, disperse, without sitting for a talk. Verily, such (behaviour) annoys the Prophet, and he is shy of (asking) you (to go), but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. And when you ask (his wives) for anything you want, ask them from behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. And it is not (right) for you that you should annoy Allah's Messenger, nor that you should ever marry his wives after him (his death). Verily! With Allah that shall be an enormity." (Al-Ahzab 33:53)

 


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