Categories of Patience
Patience can be divided into categories
following the five categories of deeds, namely wajib (obligatory), mandub
(encouraged), mahdhur (forbidden), makruh (disliked), and mubah (permissible).
Obligatory (Wajib) Patience
1. Patience in staying away from forbidden
things and actions.
2. Patience in carrying out obligatory needs.
3. Patience in facing adversity which is beyond ones control such
as illness, poverty, etc.
Encouraged (mandub) Patience
1. Patience in staying away form disliked
2. Patience in performing acts of worship which are liked and encouraged
3. Patience in refraining from taking revenge.
Forbidden (mahdur) Patience
1. Patience in staying away from food
and drink until death.
2. Patience in staying away from eating haram meat, carrion, and blood,when
alternative is death from starvation. Tawus and Ahmad ibn Hanbal said,
Whoever has no choice but to eat carion, haram meat and blood,but
refuses to eat it and dies as a consequence, will enter Hell.
3. Patience in refraining from begging. There is dispute as to where the
begging from people is forbidden or permissible. Imam Ahmad said this
kind of Patience and abstention is allowed. He was asked, What
if the person fears that if he does not do that he will die? Imam
Ahmad answered, No he will not die, Allah will send him his due
(rizq) provision. Imam Ahmad did not allow begging: when Allah knows
need of a person and his sincerity in abstaining from begging, Allah will
send him rizq. Other scholars, including some of Imam Ahmad's companions
and Imam Shafii said. It is obligatory on such a person
to beg, and if he did not beg, then he would be a wrongdoer, because by
begging he protects himself from death.
4. Patience in enduring things that may lead to death, such as predators,
snake, fire and water.
5. Patience in times of fitnah when Muslims are fighting Muslims. Patience
in staying away from fight at such time when Muslims are killing each
other, is mubah (permissible) in deed it is mustahabb (liked or preferred).
When the prophet was asked about this he said,Be like the better
one of the two sons of Adam. In other similar reports he said, Be
like things slave of Allah who was killed, and not like the one who has
killed, and let him carry his own wrong action and your wrong
action. In another report, he said, If the sword is too bright,
put your hand on your face. Allah has told us the story of the better
of the two sons of Adam, and how he surrendered himself and did not fight
back, and how Allah commended him for that. This is different to the days
when Muslims are fighting kafirun; in that situation the Muslim has to
defend himself, because the meaning of jihad is to defend himself and
Disliked (makruh) Patience
1. Patience in staying away from physical
appetites (food,drink, sex) to the extent of causing damage to one's health.
2. Patience in doing a makruh deed. Permissible PatiencePatience in staying
away from mubah deeds.