of "Aqeedahtu Tahawiyah" 5 to 8
Adapted from Lectures by Sheikh
Ahmad Musa Jibril
5. He is the
Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end.
are not in any order like the Iman section or the sectionon refuting
other beliefs, and so on. The author chose his statements in different
orders. The same applies for the attributes of Allah (azza wajal) ,
some statements are replies to deviants, and some are from the principles
of Ahlus Sunnah .)
Matters of Discussion:
The proof for this attribute
is as Allah (azza wajal) said (huwa alawwal walakhr)
1. "He is the
First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the
Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer
than Him). And He is the All-Knower of every thing." 57:3
2. Also a hadith
in Muslim the prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say about
Allah (azza wajal) "You are the first and nothing before you, and
you are the last and nothing after you." (Muslim 2713)
Thus, these are the proofs that
Allah does not have a beginning and is enduring without an end.
2] QADEEM IS NOT ONE OF ALLAH'S
The word "QADEEM" means "old". Unlike the name of
Allah (azza wajal) "AL AWWAL" which means "first",
the word "QADEEM" is NOT one of Allah's names. This is worth
nothing because this is what the proponents of philosophy claim.
"QADEEM" is not an attribute
of Allah. "QADEEM" is only used to describe the attribute
and name of Allah -al awwal- which means the first.
3] WHY "QADEEM" IS
NOT AND CANNOT BE ONE OF ALLAH'S NAMES
1. Because we only
take names of Allah (azza wajal) from the Qur'an and the Sunnah . "QADEEM"
is not in the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
is a word that can be used to describe, to praise, and to defame. However,
all of Allah's names are all praiseworthy names. For instance, Allah
(azza wajal) says:
for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old
shrivelled palm-leaf." 36:39.
Allah (azza wajal)
described "old-shriveled palm leaves" something that is not
praiseworthy but rather derogatory.
Not only that, but
when one says "old shriveled palm leaves" it implies that
it will remain that way until the new one replaces them.
3. There is a big difference between
QADEEM and AL AWWAL. When one says Al Awwal, "the first",
it implies that there is nothing before it. When one says QADEEM it
implies that there is someone older. We know this is not true of Allah
(azza wajal) for the following reasons:
-The prophet (sallallahu
alayhi wa sallam) said to Allah (azza wajal) "You are the first
and nothing before you."
-As indicated by
the previous ayah, "old" is a derogatory word and implies
that it will be replaced.
-Allah (azza wajal)
who disbelieve (strong and wealthy) say of those who believe (weak
and poor): "Had it (Islamic Monotheism to which Muhammad is inviting
mankind) been a good thing, they (weak and poor) would not have preceded
us thereto!" And when they have not let themselves be guided
by it (this Qur'an), they say: "This is an ancient lie!"
Meaning, old in
time and there is something older than it.
-Ibn Hazm, among
many other scholars, clearly said "QADEEM" is not one of
-AL AWWAL is better
because it gives the impression that what comes after it belongs to
it and follows it unlike the word "QADEEM".
4. QADEEM is not
a term you can call unto Allah (azza wajal) with like "Ya Qadeem,
give me such and such.."
Allah (azza wajal)
(all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them,
and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech
against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do.
Using the names of Allah (azza wajal)
to call Him is a means for Allah (azza wajal) to accept your dua'a.
Thus, it would not make sense to call upon Allah by saying for instance
"Oh the face of Allah!" (azza wajal) or "Oh the hands
of Allah!" These are not in our dua'a because they are names and
not attributes and we only call Allah (azza wajal) by his names as the
Why does the Author use the word
The author here uses the word QADEEM but restricts it to - "Qadeem,
without beginning". Had the author said "QADEEM, old/eternal"
then he would have been wrong to say so.
Hence, QADEEM is not a attribute
of Allah (azza wajal) nor can it be used alone without adding the words
-"without beginning" to it..
4] THE RULES FOR A NAME OF ALLAH
1) That the Qur'an
and Sunnah indicate that it's a name of Allah (azza wajal). It be specified
that it is a name of Allah (azza wajal). An action of Allah (azza wajal)
will not be a name.
2) It should be from
that which we call Allah (azza wajal) with in our dua'a
3) It must be a praising
of Allah (azza wajal) otherwise it's not a name of Allah (azza wajal).
This is from another rule of ahl alSunnah which is the Names of Allah
(azza wajal) are more restricted than His attributes, and His attributes
are more restricted than His actions and His action is more restricted
than explanations about Him.
The opposite applies.
Explaining about Allah (azza wajal) is broader. Actions are broader
than the attributes. And, attributes are broader than the names of Allah
Thus, this statement
"Qadeem Bila ibtidaa", eternal without a beginning, is a more
broad explanation of Allah's (azza wajal) attribute. While to give Allah
(azza wajal) the attribute of Qadeem gives the explanation less leeway,
as well asto name Allah (azza wajal) Qadeem is even more constricting.
3 rules do not fit the word Qadeem
1. It's not in the Qur'an and the Sunnah as His name.
2. We cannot call Allah (azza wajal) by it in our dua'a because it's
not a name.
3. It's not a praising of Allah (azza wajal) by itself simply because
in order for the author to praise Allah (azza wajal) with the word Qadeem,
he added the restriction "without a beginning" to it.
5] (QADEEM AND DAEM) ARE DESCRIBED
BY AHLUS SUNNAH AS:
- Al-Awwal and Akhr
That's what we have proof on.
-He is awwal first
in himself and his attributes.
-And Last in himself and in his attributes.
-He will continue to have these attributes forever.
So we say his knowledge is first.
His mercy is first. We don't say his knowledge is "QADEEM",
old, His mercy is old..etc.
6. He will never
perish or come to an end.
Matters of Discussion:
This statement shows that Allah (azza wajal) will never perish. All
creations other than Allah (azza wajal) were nonexistent originally,
and then Allah (azza wajal) created them. They will die and be resurrected
on the final day.
Allah (azza wajal) said :
is on it (the earth) will perish." 55:26
Allah (azza wajal) said :
put your trust (O Muhammad) in the Ever Living One Who dies not, and
glorify His Praises, and Sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins
of His slaves;" 25:58
*Yafna and yabeed are the same in
meaning. Both are used together because in the Arabic language it is
an emphasis, an assurance and affirmation that He will never come to
2] WHY THE AUTHOR CHOSE THIS
a) To add praise
to Allah (azza wajal) by showing His might in the fact that He will
never perish which helps explain the previous sentence "enduring
without an end".
b) To oppose innovators who claim that some of Allah (azza wajal) attributes
fade away. And by this, it was made clear that the attributes of Allah
(azza wajal) never fade or die away and we do not restrict it to a certain
time or year. He (subhana wa ta'ala) will never perish.
Nothing happens except what He wills.
Matters of Discussion:
Allah (azza wajal) said:
you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing,
Allah (azza wajal) said:
you will not, unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the 'Alamin
(mankind, jinns and all that exists)." 81:29
2] THE INTENDED MEANING OF THIS
This proves the will and Qadr (destiny)
of Allah (azza wajal). Everything on this universe happens by Allah's
will, both what we consider good and bad.
3] REASON FOR CHOOSING THIS STATEMENT
*This statement by Imam Tahawy is
a reply to a sect called Qadriyyah, also known as Jabriyyah, mu3tazilah.
They claim that Allah's will was to have people have Iman. It is the
independent will of the kafir to have kufer, that the kafir creates
(yakhluq) his own actions, meaning, that among Allah's creations is
that which goes against the will of Allah (azza wajal).
This is showing that things in this
universe go against Allah's will and this is nothing but a defamation
of Allah (azza wajal).
Hence, Imam Tahawy wanted to reply
to these two groups who did not master nor comprehend what the will
of Allah (azza wajal) meant and what the difference between the two
wills of Allah (azza wajal) are (see below for iradah).
The two groups he is replying to
-They believe that a servant is independent in his actions. Allah
(azza wajal) has no will over the actions of worshippers.
- They believe that actions of slaves of Allah (azza wajal) are not
- They believe that slaves are the creators of their actions.
- They believe that sins don't happen by the will of Allah (azza wajal).
- The extreme ones from them deny that Allah (azza wajal) even knows
- They basically deny Allah (azza wajal) full eternal will over everything.
- They are called the majoos of this ummah in that the majoos believe
in the lord of darkness and lord of brightness. If they deny that
Allah (azza wajal) creates actions of humans then by default there
must be another creator.
-They went to another extreme in Qadr by saying a human/slave of Allah
has no choice in his actions.
- They believe that a person has no choice or no will.
- They believe that a person is like a feather flying in the air.
- They believe that actions of humans are metaphors and not reality.
- They believe that to pray, to fast, or to be killed is like saying
the sun rose, the wind blew the tree, the rain fell.
- They basically accuse Allah (azza wajal) of oppression
- They accuse Allah (azza wajal) of vainly ordaining people to do things
and put commands and prohibitions on them.
- To them there is no wisdom in ordain and prohibitions.
-They are called Qadriyyah Mushrikeen because the mushrikeen said to
who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: "If Allah had
willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor
would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against
His Will)." Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued
falsely with Allah's Messengers), till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say:
"Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us?
Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie."
What is the basic belief of ahl
alSunnah in this matter?
The belief of ahl alSunnah is (Allah (azza wajal) is that Allah (azza
wajal) created the action but the human being does not get judged by
the creation but by the doing of it and choice he made)
*Every good and bad/evil creation
is under Allah's will.
4] THESE GROUPS WENT ASTRAY BECAUSE
THEY DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE TWO TYPES OF WILLS:
To help shed more light on this matter you will need to know the will
of Allah (azza wajal) is two kinds:
Qadriyyeh/Kawniyyah/Khalkiyyah - The Universal Will- everything
Allah (azza wajal) wills.
Everything falls under this type
of will. Whether it be good and bad, things Allah (azza wajal) likes
and things he does not like, everything falls under this category.
Allah (azza wajal) may not be pleased
with it or like it (la yahubuh wala yardah) but it falls under His will
for a wisdom only Allah (azza wajal) knows, like kufur, disputes, and
so on. He created the good and bad and said He (azza wajal) likes the
good and despises the bad.
Allah (azza wajal) creates the good
for a wisdom and that which we think is bad and evil for a wisdom. For
instance, the point of creating evil has a wisdom behind it. It has
a significant function such as testing people, separating the truthful
from falsehood, to reward upon the deeds, to punish on the sins. In
fact, Ibn al Qayyim lists 33 benefits from the creation of Shaitan.
From the Qur'an on Iradah Qawniyyah
Allah (azza wajal) said:
whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam, and whomsoever
He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted,
as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those
who believe not." 6:125
"And my advice will not profit you, even if I wish to give you
good counsel, if Allah's Will is to keep you astray. He is your Lord!
and to Him you shall return." 11:34
"Those Messengers! We preferred some to others; to some of them
Allah spoke (directly); others He raised to degrees (of honour); and
to 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), We gave clear proofs and
evidences, and supported him with Ruh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)].
If Allah had willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against
each other, after clear Verses of Allah had come to them, but they differed
- some of them believed and others disbelieved. If Allah had willed,
they would not have fought against one another, but Allah does what
He likes." 2:253
Deenyyah/Shariyah/Amriyyah: Everything Allah (azza wajal) wills and
intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult
for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days),
and that you must magnify Allah [i.e. to say Takbir (Allahu-Akbar; Allah
is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadan and
Shawwal] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.".
"Allah wishes to make clear (what is lawful and what is unlawful)
to you, and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your
repentance, and Allah is AllKnower, AllWise." 4:26
"And Allah would turn to you in mercy; but those who follow vain
desires would have you go tremendously astray." 4:27
"Allah would make the burden light for you, for man was created
"Allah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to
purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful."
"Allah wishes only to remove ArRijs
(evil deeds and sins, etc.) from you, O members of the family (of the
Prophet), and to purify you with a thorough purification." 33:33
-Saying "this person does that
which Allah (azza wajal) does not want" falls under category #2
meaning that which Allah (azza wajal) does not like , pleased with or
-The first type of iradah is like saying "mashallah kan wama lam
yasha lam yakun" -whatever Allah (azza wajal) wills will happen
and that which he does not will will not happen.
5] THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE
TWO WILLS OF ALLAH
a) Iradah Qawniyyah: Allah (azza
wajal) may like it and be pleased with it, and he may not like it and
may not be pleased with it. Shariyah can only be what he likes and is
Iradah Qawniyyah is the will of Allah (azza wajal) . Iradah Shariyah
is the will of Allah (azza wajal)that he likes.
b) Iradah Qawniyyah may be created
for other than itself, like creation of devil. That could have been
created for many good reasons such as repentance, patient, mujahidat
nafs and istighfar.
Iradah Shariyah was created for itself because Allah (azza wajal) wants
obedience and liked it and is pleased with it for itself.
c) Iradah Qawniyyah must happen.
Allah (azza wajal) wants something it must happen like death, life or
like that. Iradah Shariyah does not necessarily have to happen (could
happen and could not)
If Iradah Shariyah was a must to happen then everyone would muslim.
There would be no sinners, repenters, praying..etc
d) Both wills of Allah (azza wajal)
(Shariyah and Qawniyyah ) combine in one who is obedient.
One who prays has had both wills
by his prayer.
Prayer is liked by Allah (azza wajal), He ordered it, and He liked it
and is please with it. This is from Iradah Shariyah. From Iradah Qawniyyah,
is that it happened.
Belief in Iradah Qawniyyah is
alone in a kafer
By it happening shows it is under Allah (azza
wajal) will because nothing happens except by the will of Allah (azza
wajal). The fact that it is not liked and not pleases Allah (azza wajal)
shows it as Qawniyyah and not Shariyah .
Shariyah happens alone in believing
of kafer(who did not believe yet), and obedience of sinner (who
did not stop yet). These are Shariyah in that Allah (azza wajal) likes
it and is pleased with it, however it did not happen so it not Qawniyyah.
8. No imagination
can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him.
(Allah) knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and
what will happen to them (in the Hereafter), and they will never compass
anything of His Knowledge." 20:110
This does not mean Allah (azza wajal)
is not known to us, rather we know of Allah (azza wajal) and have knowledge
of him. But the point is we cannot with our limited mentality comprehend
Him fully knowledge wise, or imagine him mentally because He is supreme
more than anything.
No mind can imagine him. Anything
you imagine of Allah (azza wajal), know Allah (azza wajal) is way more
supreme than that.
Last Updated: March 10, 2003